Political System

Chuvashia has its symbols of statehood Coat of Arms, Flag, and Anthem. The state languages are Chuvash and Russian. The working Constitution of Chuvash Republic was adopted on November 30, 2000. The President, the National Council and the Cabinet of Ministers carry out the state power in the republic. The President is the highest official and the head of the executive. He is elected by the citizens on the basis of the general equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The National Council executes the legislative activity, adopts the Constitution of Chuvash Republic, introduces changes and amendments to it, solves problems of administrative and territorial structure, approves the republican budget, republican programmes of economic and social development, executes control of their fulfilment, as well as of enforcement of the laws of Chuvash Republic, makes decisions on holding the republican referendum, approves the state awards and titles of honour. The Cabinet of Ministers of Chuvash Republic is the permanently functioning highest executive body of the state power, the President of Chuvash Republic forms it, and it is responsible to him. In the Government there are many young, progressively thinking ministers, more than 30% are women. In the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation Chuvashia is represented by two deputies of the State Duma and two members of the Council of Federation. On the territory of the republic, the federal judiciary is represented by the Supreme Court, district (town) courts, and the Arbitration court. The judiciary of Chuvash Republic is represented by the justices of the peace, appointed by the National Council on presentation of the Supreme Court chairman with the consent of the President. Institutions of the local government are conventions of the deputies, heads of self-management, administration and other bodies formed under the law On organization of local government in Chuvash Republic and the Charters of municipal formations. The political parties are not numerous. Political situation and interethnic relations are stable in Chuvashia. Nikolai Vasilyevich Fyodorov was elected the first President of Chuvash Republic in December 1993, and he was re-elected in December 1997, and in December 2001. He is Chuvash, was born in the republic in 1958, graduated from the Kazan state university, the post-graduate course of the Institute of state and law of the USSR Academy of sciences. He is an expert in the field of constitutional law, Dr. Sc. (Economics), has the highest rank of the State counsellor of justice of the Russian Federation. He is a young politician, well known in Russia. He began his activity as a teacher of the Chuvash state university. In 1989, he was elected as the deputy of the USSR parliament, one of the chiefs of the legislation committee of the USSR Supreme Soviet. He supervised creation of the law on freedom of mass media, the first in the USSR. At the pleasure of Boris Yeltsin he became the first Minister of justice of Russia in 1990 and worked in four staffs of the Russian Government. He was a member of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, the head of the governmental commission on solving international conflicts and of the interdepartmental commission of the Security Council of Northern Caucasus republics. He was elected as the deputy of the State Duma of the Russian Federation of the first convocation. He was the vice-chairman of the Federation Council Committee of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation on the constitutional legislation and judicial-legal problems, vice-chairman of the Federation Council Committee on international affairs; a member of commission on legal problems and human rights and of a special commission on Chechnya of Council of Europes Parliamentary Assembly. According to estimations of western experts, Fyodorov is a decisive supporter of reforms. He is looking for his own way to the social market economy of west-European type. He has a number of state awards and public ranks. For personal merits and the contribution to development of Russia by the decision of the Organizing committee of the "Russian national Olympus" Premium he was awarded the highest honorary title President of the year 2001. He was awarded the rank of the winner of the Russian Federation State prize.